The United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) is mandated by the UN General Assembly (UNGA). Established on 11 December 1946 by the UN, UNICEF was tasked to provide emergency food and healthcare to children whose countries had been devastated by the Second World War. Today, UNICEF aims to save children’s lives, defend their rights, and help them fulfil their potential, from early childhood through adolescence. In particular, UNICEF aims to work with others to overcome the obstacles that poverty, violence, disease and discrimination place in a child’s path, and advocate measures to give children the best start in life.
Some notable efforts by UNICEF include its partnerships with End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography and the Trafficking of Children for Sexual Preferences (ECPAT) to set up the world’s first centralised system for reporting on sex tourists in Switzerland. Under this programme, the Swiss Federal Office of Police (Fedpol) introduced a website which has a new form that will be used to gather data about suspected offenders. UNICEF has also applauded the South African tourism and hospitality industry for getting top industry leaders to sign the Tourism Child Protection Code of Conduct aimed at protecting children.
Established in 1946, the Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Committee (SOCHUM) is the Third Committee of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA). The aim of SOCHUM is to promote fundamental freedoms through the elimination of racism and discrimination.
SOCHUM plays a crucial role in examining human rights questions by focusing on social, humanitarian and human rights issues that are prevalent around the world. Additionally, SOCHUM touches on social development issues related to youth and family, crime prevention and criminal justice.
In 2018, SOCHUM approved the “Strengthening and promoting effective measures and international cooperation on organ donation and transplantation to prevent and combat trafficking in persons for the purpose of organ removal and trafficking in human organs” resolution. This resolution aims to encourage cooperation between various agencies involved to combat illegal organ trade through a multidisciplinary approach.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) is one of the six General Assemblies of the United Nations. The mandate of UNESCO is to further peace and security by advancing in international collaboration in the spheres of education, science and culture. With 193 member states and 11 associate members, UNESCO strives for human rights and justice amidst political decisions and the development of countries.
UNESCO’s aims encompass the building of peace, eradication of poverty, promotion of sustainable development and fostering of intercultural relations. Some of the programmes sponsored by UNESCO include the World Heritage Sites, translations of world literature, and promotion of autonomous media and freedom from the press. With the emerging forms of intolerance and threats to freedom of expression, UNESCO’s vision remains relevant to reaffirm the humanist goals in education, science and culture.
Founded in 1947, the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) had a full women representation from 15 governments. Since then, CSW has expanded to include 45 member states of the UN to serve as members of the Commission. CSW has been supported by the Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW) in the UN Secretariat and is overseen by the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).
As the main global intergovernmental body promoting gender equality and the empowerment of women, CSW plays a leading role in championing for women’s rights, documenting life experiences of women and shaping global benchmarks on gender equality. Within countries, the CSW works with governmental and non-governmental partners to help them with the policy-making, laws, services, and resources to advance towards gender equality.
The CSW created The 1995 Beijing Declaration and Platform of Action, one of the most widely known policy document that targets gender equality. So far, the Action Plan has led to 287 actions being taken to implement the Beijing Platform of Action in all 12 critical areas of concern, such as securing educational opportunities and protecting human rights of women. Despite rigorous efforts, the endeavour for gender equality still continues and according to the World Economic Forum, it would take another 217 years to achieve this ideal.
Continuous efforts to advocate for gender equality in the realms of politics and human rights are important and will be the council’s focus for the conference.
The ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) is a regional inter-governmental organisation comprising 27 member states: the 10 ASEAN member states (Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Burma, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam), the 10 ASEAN dialogue partners (Australia, Canada, China, the European Union, India, Japan, New Zealand, the Republic of Korea, Russia and the United States), one ASEAN observer (Papua New Guinea), as well as the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Mongolia, Pakistan, Timor-Leste, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. Collectively, the ARF leads off from ASEAN approaches that are predicated on consensus-seeking dialogue, and sets about their diplomatic process through a three-tiered structure starting with confidence-building measures, preventive diplomacy and the strengthening of conflict resolution capacity.
The ASEAN Regional Forum will be a double delegation council.
Established in June 1945, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN). The role of the court is to settle legal disputes submitted by States according to international law and provide advisory opinion on legal questions to the UN. It acts as a world court and its jurisdiction is twofold: jurisdiction in contentious cases; and advisory proceedings.
Cases before the ICJ are resolved in any of the following three ways:
Additionally, under Article 94 of the UN Charter, should any party of a contentious case neglect following through with obligations mandated under a judgement extended by the ICJ, the other party may call upon the United Nation Security Council (UNSC), which may, if it requires, “make recommendations or decide upon measures to be taken to give effect to the judgement.”
The International Court of Justice will be a double delegation council.
Established in 1945 by the United Nations Charter, the Security Council is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations. Aiming to protect international security, the Security Council convenes whenever international peace and security is threatened, and encourages negotiation and cooperation among major players on the world stage to resolve crises collectively.
Besides the resolution of crises for the sake of international peace and security, the UNSC also aims to promote human rights, as established under the United Nations Founding Charter. To achieve their aims, the Security Council mainly focuses on determining the existence of threats to peace or acts of aggression. It then calls upon the parties involved to resolve the conflict via peaceful and diplomatic means, and suggest for terms of a settlement. However, when diplomacy fails and these cases of conflict result in hostile actions, the UNSC has the legal authority to impose sanctions or authorize the use of force to end hostilities. It takes action against parties culpable for policies or practices condemned by the international community, whilst attempting to minimise the threat posed to the safety and livelihoods of the civilian population.
Since its inception, the Security Council has consisted of 5 permanent member nations. This club of nations, also called the P5 nations, include:
The P5 nations were the greatest economic and military powers of the post-WW2 world order and were hence given the power of veto: to outrightly reject any resolution passed by the Security Council. The modern-day UNSC also includes 10 temporary members which rotate every 6 months, to include smaller, less powerful nations in UNSC discussions, thus better representing the interests of smaller states.
Finally, according to the United Nations Charter, decisions made by the Security Council are legally binding on all member states of the UN. This means all 193 member states of the UN are legally obligated to comply with the decisions of the Security Council.
The Security Council will be a double delegation council.
The Commission on Science and Technology for AI and Robotics (COSTAR), falls under the jurisdiction and monitoring of the UN General Assembly (UNGA). Originally established in 2019, COSTAR is responsible for moderating the research and development of Artificial Intelligence and Robotics. It acts in accordance with principles and values of the UNGA — to respect all internationally recognised human rights and fundamental freedom and to eliminate dangers posed by weapons of mass destruction.
COSTAR strives towards optimising the use of technology in AI and Robotics to maintain international peace, increase work productivity and promote higher standards of living. The Commission serves as an international platform for the collaboration of countries to formulate policy solutions addressed to the United Nations pertaining to AI and Robotics. COSTAR also identifies and evaluates secure development pathways for AI to develop safe and robust machines.